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Yoweri Kaguta Museveni (Ntungamo, August 15, 1944) is a politician, ex-guerrilla and Ugandan writer, President of the Republic of Uganda since January 29, 1986, took power after the overthrow of Milton Obote and General Tito Okello.
Museveni has exercised an authoritarian regime, and was implicated in the rebellions that overthrew the dictator Idi Amin and his successor, Milton Obote. Unlike them, Museveni has brought stability to the country, except for the northern region of Uganda that still suffers from inter-ethnic and tribal armed conflicts.
During the mandate of Musevini, there has been some peace in Uganda, with the exception of the northern part of the country, where the rebels reign, which almost daily burn the houses of different Ugandan tribes.
It was also during the beginning of the Musevini government that the rate of people infected with the HIV virus (AIDS) increased alarmingly. However, thanks to a massive campaign it has managed to significantly reduce these rates, reaching comparatively low levels of infection. This campaign is known by the name of its acronym in English, ABC (Abstinence, Be faithful, use a Condom, translated into Spanish as “Abstinence, be faithful and use condoms”).
Musevini won the elections held in 1985, for the period 1986-1992, and according to the Ugandan constitution, with the possibility of indefinite re-election. In all subsequent elections since 1991 he was re-elected fraudulently, with a majority of the votes for the 1992-1998 term. Museveni came to power in 1986, but only in 2013 did it allow the participation of political parties in elections, since it governed a single-party system.
In 1997 he won the elections again, for the period 1998-2004. Although the opposition decided to abstain in the 2003 elections, these were carried out. Being the only candidate to stand for election, he won almost 100% of the votes for the 2004-2010 term. In 2009 he again won the elections with an absolute majority for the period 2010-2016, although the international public opinion and the Ugandan people themselves did not see how true democracy existed in those elections, like the opposition candidates, who were being threatened or accused for not participate in the elections. Museveni decided to hold a presidential election again in February 2011 and was successful.
The king of Buganda, the largest kingdom in Uganda, is more popular than the president himself, a fact that is very significant when it comes to assessing the figure of Museveni.
Museveni has entered to participate in the civil war of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where they have been involved, as well as Uganda, the following countries: Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi.
Early Years and Education
Museveni was born on August 15, 1944, in the Ntungamo District, located in southwestern Uganda. According to several reports, they indicate that their parents were of Rwandan origin, especially on the mother’s side, in which their mother was a Tutsi. As a child, he lived in an environment where the Ankole tribe reigned (until its dissolution in 1966). Since he was a child he was educated by various Christian missionaries, first entering the Ntare School in Mbabare, Swaziland, and then the Universitary College, located in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where he will study Political Science and Economics. close to various ideologies, such as anticolonialism, pan-Africanism, and socialism (especially towards the Tanzanian government of Julius Nyerere). Soon after, he became the first president of the Revolutionary Front of African Students (USARF), which brought together students from East Africa, supporters of the emancipation of their countries.
In 1970, he obtained his Bachelor in Arts, and was an assistant to the cabinet of President Milton Obote until his overthrow in 1971, by an army branch led by Idi Amin. After this, Museveni left for exile to Tanzania in 1972, during which while he was working as a school teacher, he planned the overthrow of the Amin regime.
Overthrow of Idi Amin
In Tanzania, Museveni was close to the guerrilla tactics of the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), and in September 1972, joins an attempted coup against Dada led by Obote. The coup failed miserably, because they were few and poorly prepared, but even so, Museveni manages to flee to Tanzania, where he creates his own guerrilla group called the National Salvation Army (FRONASA), his guerrilla group moves to Mozambique , where they set up their training camp, and in 1978, the FRONASA was combined with various Ugandan opposition groups, creating the National Liberation Front (NLF), which together with the Armed Forces of Mozambique, planned a new coup d’état. The invasion took place on October 30, 1978, in which after 5 months of intense combat, they manage to overthrow the regime of Idi Amin on April 11, 1979, who flees to Libya and then to Saudi Arabia, where he will spend the rest of his life. Meanwhile, the NLF establishes a provisional government in Uganda, where it is chaired interim by several rulers, and Museveni, is appointed as Minister of Defense, and later as Minister of Regional Cooperation. In 1980, he was one of the responsible in charge of Obote returning to power.
Political career and Civil War (1981-1986)
Shortly thereafter, Museveni enters fully into politics, founding the Ugandan Patriotic Movement (UPM) political party, in which he presents himself as a parliamentary candidate for the general elections held on December 10, 1980. However, in these elections only manage to obtain a single seat, while on the other hand, they gain by overwhelming majority the supporters of Obote, in which it would not take long to know that they won under a massive electoral fraud. After hearing about the scandal, Museveni and his party are part of the opposition, led by the Democratic Party of Uganda, led by Paul Kawanga. However, Museveni, contrary to making a parliamentary criticism like Kawanga did, decides to take up arms, giving way to the Ugandan civil war.
In 1981, Museveni and his followers founded the National Resistance Army (NRA), and a political group called the National Resistance Movement (NRM), which are established in the Mubende district, and are financed by the government of Tanzania, who also intervene militarily in the border areas of Uganda to weaken the Obote regime. On both sides, serious crimes against humanity were committed, in which, on the one hand, Obote ordered various massacres against civilians and opponents, while on the other hand, Museveni and the NRA used child soldiers for various guerrilla missions. The conflict suffered an unexpected turn when, on July 27, 1985, Obote was again overthrown, but not by the NRA, but by Acholi ethnic militants, who took control of Kampala, the capital of Uganda. When Lieutenant General Tito Okello took over as head of the military junta, hostilities continued between the new government and the NRA, which had a ceasefire, after the NRA took the strategic city of Masaka, so both gave The beginning of a series of negotiations and peace talks, and on December 17 of that year, Okello and Museveni signed a peace agreement in Nairobi, Kenya, which would create a unified national army, and Museveni was vice president of the Board, until the realization of new elections. However, the pact is broken in a very short time, and in January 1986, the NRA takes the city of Kampala without opposition, ending the civil war. The new government forms a National Resistance Council (NRC), formed by 98 members of the NRM, the NRA and even some opposition parties to create an image of national unity. These appoint Yoweri Museveni as President of Uganda, and at the same time will be Minister of Defense.
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