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|J. Robert Oppenheimer|
|J. Robert Oppenheimer, c. 1944|
|Birthday/Birthplace||(1904-04-22)April 22, 1904
New York City, New York
|Deceased||February 18, 1967(1967-02-18)
Princeton, New Jersey
Christ’s College, Cambridge
University of Göttingen
|Credit for||Nuclear weapons development
|Wife/Husband||Katherine “Kitty” Puening Harrison (1940–1967; his death; 2 children)|
|Awards Won||Enrico Fermi Award (1963)|
|Institutions||University of California, Berkeley
California Institute of Technology
Los Alamos Laboratory
Institute for Advanced Study
|Thesis||Zur Quantentheorie kontinuierlicher Spektren (1927)|
|Doctoral advisor||Max Born|
|Doctoral students||Samuel W. Alderson
Willis Eugene Lamb
|Brother of physicist Frank Oppenheimer|
Robert Oppenheimer Short Bio
Julius Robert Oppenheimer [a] (New York, United States, April 22, 1904 – Princeton, New Jersey, United States, February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist of Jewish origin and professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley. He is one of the people often named as “father of the atomic bomb” because of his outstanding participation in the Manhattan Project, the project that managed to develop the first nuclear weapons in history, during World War II. The first nuclear bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945 at the Trinity Test in New Mexico, United States. Oppenheimer would later state that the words of Bhagavad Gita came to mind: “Now I have become death, the destroyer of worlds.” [B] Oppenheimer always expressed regret at the death of innocent victims when the bombs nuclear weapons were launched against the Japanese at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.
After the war he held the position of chief advisor in the newly created United States Atomic Energy Commission and used his position to advocate for international control of nuclear power, prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and stop the arms race between United States and the Soviet Union. After provoking the wrath of many politicians for their public opinions, he ended up withdrawing his security passes, losing access to the secret military documents of his country, and ended up being stripped of his direct political influence during a much-publicized audience in 1954 In that decade the United States lived in Macarthism and all those people suspected of sympathizing with communism or simply being dissidents were persecuted by the government; Oppenheimer was able to continue writing, working in physics and lecturing. Nine years after the hearing, Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson awarded him and awarded the Enrico Fermi Prize respectively as a gesture of rehabilitation of his figure.
Oppenheimer made remarkable achievements in the field of physics, such as the Born-Oppenheimer approach. He also worked on the theory of electrons and positrons, the Oppenheimer-Phillips process of nuclear fusion and the first prediction on the tunnel effect. Together with his students he made important contributions to modern theory about neutron stars and black holes, as well as quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and the interactions of cosmic rays. As a professor and promoter of science, he is remembered as one of the founders of the American school of theoretical physics that gained worldwide prominence in the 1930s. After World War II, he also served as director of the Institute for Advanced Princeton Study.
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