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|Ramón Castilla y Marquesado|
|20th President of Peru|
February 17, 1844 – August 10, 1844
|Preceded by||Domingo Nieto|
|Succeeded by||Domingo Elías|
|22nd President of Peru|
April 20, 1845 – April 20, 1851
|Preceded by||Manuel Menéndez|
|Succeeded by||José Rufino Echenique|
January 5, 1855 – October 24, 1862
|Vice President||Juan Manuel del Mar|
|Preceded by||José Rufino Echenique|
|Succeeded by||Miguel de San Román|
|Interim President of Peru (Revolution Self-proclaimed President)|
April 3, 1863 – April 9, 1863
|Preceded by||Miguel de San Román|
|Succeeded by||Pedro Diez Canseco|
|Birthday/Birthplace||(1797-08-31)August 31, 1797
Tarapacá, Viceroyalty of Peru
|Deceased||May 30, 1867(1867-05-30)
|Wife/Husband||Francisca Diez Canseco|
|Profession||Soldier (Field marshal)|
Ramón Castilla y Marquesado (Tarapacá, Viceroyalty of Peru, August 31, 1797 – Tiliviche, Tarapacá, Peru, May 30, 1867) was a Peruvian military man and politician who became President of Peru on two occasions: from 1845 to 1851 (as Constitutional President) and from 1855 to 1862 (initially as Provisional President and then Constitutional). In 1863 he also assumed the temporary presidency for a few days, due to the death of President Miguel de San Román. He ruled in total 12 years, being the president who spent more years in republican Peru, after Augusto B. Leguía. He is considered the first progressive and innovating president of the Peruvian Republic, and according to the historian Jorge Basadre, the Republican period in Peru really began with him, since his predecessors had devoted more time to wars and civil strife. His important reforms in politics and society of his time confirm these assertions; the most remembered of his works is the manumission of black slaves, officially decreed in 1854. But he also gave the law of freedom of the press, abolished the Indian tribute, abolished the death penalty, founded the diplomatic service; Reformed the public administration, established the budget, paid the external and internal debt; organized the Council of Ministers, creating its presidency; initiated the educational reform abandoning the colonial molds; modernized the army; He created a respectable naval force. Its mandate coincided with the introduction of several technical advances in Peru such as the telegraph, gas lighting, and railroads. Ramón Castilla also initiated the development of the Peruvian Amazon, among other works. He is considered a patron of the Cavalry Weapon of the Peruvian Army.
Ramon Castilla’s Biography
It was originally from Tarapacá, in the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of Peru. He began his military career very young, in the royalist army that was defeated in the battle of Chacabuco. Taken prisoner to Buenos Aires, he obtained permission to leave the country and went to Brazil, from where he headed back to Peru. Reincorporated into the Spanish army, the year following the proclamation of the independence of Peru was folded to the patriot army. He contributed to the formation of the cavalry corps of the Peruvian Legion, which was later called the Hussars of Junin, and stood out in the battle of Ayacucho, in 1824. He then followed an ascending military and political career, participating in the wars and revolutions of the nascent Peruvian Republic, and occupying the highest public positions in the governments of Agustín Gamarra and Luis José de Orbegoso. In 1836, shortly before the establishment of the Bolivian Peru Confederation, he went to Chile, from where he returned with the restoration expeditions that put an end to this political project. He served as Minister of War of the second government of Gamarra, whom he accompanied in the campaign to Bolivia, until its end in the battle of Ingavi in 1841. Taken prisoner by the Bolivians, he was released at the signing of the peace in 1842, returning to his country , then convulsed by military anarchy. It was then proposed to restore the rule of the Constitution and the legitimate authorities, leading a constitutionalist revolution against the de facto government of Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco, who finally triumphed in the battle of Carmen Alto, in 1844. After the interim government of Manuel Menéndez assumed the constitutional presidency of the Republic in 1845, until 1851, six years in total, in which he organized the country and carried out many works in all fields, with the backing of the income produced by the guanera wealth. Peru then entered a stage of peace and internal progress, as well as power and international prestige. This policy was not followed by his successor, General Echenique, under whose rule broke out the scandal of the consolidation of the internal debt, which forced Castile to lead the so-called Liberal Revolution of 1854, during which he decreed the abolition of the indigenous tribute being in Ayacucho (July 5, 1854), and the freedom of the black slaves being in Huancayo (December 5 of the same year). He finally triumphed in the battle of La Palma, on January 5, 1855. He assumed then as Provisional President, supported by the Liberals. He called a Constituent Congress, which proclaimed the liberal Constitution of 1856, which led to the conservative revolution of Vivanco, which led to the bloody Civil War of 1856 to 1858. At the end of this conflict, Ramón Castilla turned away from the Liberals and summoned a Congress that ratified him as Constitutional President, on October 24, 1858, for a period of four years. Said congress was relieved of its functions, installing another one in 1860 of constituent character, that same year discussed and promulgated a new Constitution, of moderate character, that would come to be the Political Letter of greater validity in the history of Peru, since it governed until 1920. As in his first government, in this second Castilla he did a good job, modernizing the country and establishing the supremacy of Peru in the continent, defending its territorial integrity during the conflict with Ecuador from 1859 to 1860. It was also the era of the guano boom, which became the main source of State resources. After finishing his government, he temporarily held power for a few days, in April 1863. He was elected senator for Tarapacá and president of the Senate in 1864, and before the conflict with Spain, he criticized the Vivanco-Pareja Treaty, for which he was exiled in 1865 to Gibraltar by the government of Juan Antonio Pezet. Returned to Lima in 1866, he settled in Tarapacá, where he led a revolution against President Mariano Ignacio Prado in defense of the 1860 Constitution, but he died in the valley of Tiliviche in 1867 at 69 years of age. “Redentor of the Indian, liberator of the Negro, founder of the freedom of the press, demolishing the political scaffold”, this is how the newspaper El Comercio evoked the memory of Castile.
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