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Marina Ivanovna Tsvetáyeva (in Cyrillic Марина Ивaновна Цветaева) (September 26, 1892 – August 31, 1941), was a Russian writer, who stood out as a poet and prose writer.
She was born on September 26, 1892. She was the daughter of the founder of the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, Ivan Tsvetaev. From affluent family and still very young he publishes with great success the evening album. He continued working in literature and met and treated the great writers. It is placed at the height Pasternak, Aimatova and Mandestam. Marina Tsvetáyeva, suffering from official disapproval, could not find housing or work. He was so poor that his daughter Irina had to go to the orphanage where, given the famished conditions, she died.
After the Russian revolution, she had to go into exile in Berlin, Prague (1922) and then in France (1925) with her husband, formerly an active white officer, who gradually became disillusioned with the attitude of the emigrants. He lived 14 years in France, to the disgust and depressed. He had two daughters, Irina and Ariadna, and a son, Georgi.
Finally, in 1939, she returned to the Soviet Union with her son Gueorgui (Mur) to join her husband Sergei Efón, who had returned to Russia with his daughter Ariadna in 1937, as a responsible for Soviet counterintelligence. Marina wrote to the head of the NKVD, Beria, asking for information and defending her husband, after an unfortunate official mission. In 1941, Sergei Efron and Ariadna were arrested, and her husband, Sergei, was shot on 16-X-1941. Ariadna had to self-accuse herself as usual, but after spending eight years in the Gulag, she was arrested again in 1949 and sent to exile in the Turujansk raion. It was only rehabilitated in 1955.
When the Great Patriotic War began, with the Nazi occupation, Marina was evacuated to Yelábuga, Tatarstan, where she finally committed suicide in 1941.
Despite all these misfortunes (and the written conscience of them) he left some very lively works, of impressive heat, intransigent and full of courage, where is the memory of a whole series of writers and artists of his time, as well like the portrait of his own obsessions, with a choppy and very sharp tongue. Her cross correspondence with Paternak and Rilke (only publishable since 1979) gives us the average of her personality, her special strength and the attraction of all kinds that she exercised.
The work was saved from destruction and oblivion thanks to his daughter Ariadna Efrón. In the Soviet Union it remained almost unpublished until after the Second World War, when it was first known through the publication of literature in clandestine works. “Nabókov rectified his prejudices about the difficult Tsvietáyeva (‘reading it only causes stupor and headache’), but he refused to lead his rehabilitation, which has not fully arrived until a few days ago when his complete work was published in Russia” , as Enrique Vila-Matas wrote.
Tsvetáyeva’s poetic work has been translated into Spanish by the Selma Ancira Slavic, a Mexican resident of Barcelona. Although it started much earlier in the Siglo XXI publishing house, since 1990 “other publishers, trapped in the loving fanatical network of Ancira, continued the work”. For Todorov he was one of the greatest writers of the 20th century.
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