Mao Ze Dong

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Mao Ze Dong

Mao Zedong (in simplified Chinese: 毛泽东, in traditional Chinese: 毛澤東, in pinyin: «Mao Zedong» and romanized: « Mao Tse-Tung »; & nbsp ; Maʊ dzədʊŋ ; Shaoshan, Hunan, December 26, 1893-Beijing, September 9, 1976) was the top leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the People’s Republic of China. Under his leadership, the Communist Party seized power in mainland China in 1949, when the new People’s Republic was proclaimed, after the victory in the Chinese Revolution against the forces of the Republic of China. The communist victory caused the flight of Chiang Kai-shek and his followers from the Kuomintang to Taiwan and made Mao the maximum leader of China until his death in 1976.

On the ideological level, Mao assumed the approaches of Marxism-Leninism but with its own nuances based on the characteristics of Chinese society, very different from the European one. In particular, Mao’s communism gives a central role to the peasant class as the engine of the revolution, an approach that differs from the traditional Marxist-Leninist vision of the Soviet Union, which saw peasants as a class with little capacity for mobilization and awarded urban workers the central role in the class struggle.

Mao’s stage of government was characterized by intense campaigns of ideological reaffirmation, which would cause major social and political upheavals in China, such as the Great Leap Forward and especially the Cultural Revolution, at which time its power reached maximum levels develop an intense cult of personality around his figure. Even today, Mao’s historical role is surrounded by great controversy. Years after his death, in 1981, the Communist Party of China published an official analysis of Mao’s responsibility for social and economic problems stemming from his policies, in which he was blamed for serious errors, even though his role as great revolutionary leader and architect of the rise to power of the Communist Party. Since then, the Communist Party of China has maintained this historical assessment of Mao as a great leader, source of legitimacy of the party itself, which nevertheless would have made some serious mistakes.

Outside of the People’s Republic, Mao’s assessments have varied from the positive view that shows him as a popular, revolutionary and Third World leader, to the perception of his time in power as an example of brutal authoritarianism. On the other hand, between 1949 and 1975, life expectancy increased: from 44 to 65. In the early 1970s, Shanghai had a lower infant mortality rate than New York, with the literacy rate rising from 15% in 1949 to 80 % in the mid-1970s. Between 1949 and 1976 China, the “sick of Asia”, became an important industrial power, the economic growth in GDP per capita during his period (1952-78) was 3 , 6% and in the subsequent period (1978-2012) has been 8.4%

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