Juan Domingo Peron

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Juan Domingo Peron

Juan Domingo Perón (Lobos, October 8, 1895-Vicente López, July 1, 1974) was a military man, politician, writer and Argentine president, the first to be elected by universal suffrage and the only one to date to assume the presidency of the Nation on three occasions, all by means of democratic elections. He was the founder of Peronism, one of the most important popular movements in the history of Argentina until today.

He participated in the Revolution of 43 that ended the so-called infamous Decade. After establishing an alliance with the socialist and revolutionary syndicalist union currents, he occupied successively the Department of Labor, the Ministry of Labor and Welfare, the Ministry of War and the Vice Presidency of the Nation. From the first two positions took measures to favor the labor sectors and make effective labor laws: promoted collective agreements, the Peon de Campo Statute, the labor courts and the extension of pensions to employees of commerce. These measures won him the support of a large part of the labor movement and the repudiation of business sectors, high income and US Ambassador Spruille Braden, so it was generated from 1945 a broad movement against him. In October of that year, a military palatial coup forced him to resign and then ordered his arrest, which triggered, on October 17, 1945, a large worker mobilization that demanded his release until he obtained it. That same year he married María Eva Duarte, who played an important political role during the presidency of Perón.

He ran as a candidate for President in the 1946 elections and was successful. Later he merged the three parties that had supported his candidacy to create first the Unified Party of the Revolution and then the Peronist Party; After the Constitutional Reform of 1949, he was re-elected in 1951 in the first elections with universal suffrage of women and men in Argentina. In addition to continuing with its policies in favor of the most neglected sectors, his government was characterized by implementing a nationalist and industrialist line, especially with regard to the textile, steel, military, transport and foreign trade. In international politics held a third position before the Soviet Union and the United States, in the framework of the Cold War. In the last year of his government he faced the Catholic Church increasing the confrontation between Peronists and anti-Peronists, and the government toughened its persecution of terrorist and coup groups, the political opposition and the opposition media. After a series of acts of violence by anti-Peronist civil and military groups, especially the bombing of the Plaza de Mayo in mid-1955, Perón was overthrown in September of that same year.

The subsequent dictatorship banned Peronism from political life and repealed the constitutional reform, which included measures to safeguard the lower social sectors and the legal equality of men and women. After his overthrow, Perón went into exile in Paraguay, Panama, Nicaragua, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic and finally in Spain. Widowed since 1952, during his exile he married María Estela Martínez de Perón, known as “Isabel”. In his absence, a movement known as the Peronist Resistance emerged in Argentina, made up of various trade union, youth, student, neighborhood, religious, cultural and guerrilla groups, whose common goal was the return of Perón and the call for free and proscriptions.

He tried to return to the country in 1964 but the Brazilian dictatorship prevented him at the request of President Illia. He finally returned to the country in 1972 to settle permanently in 1973. With Perón still outlawed, Peronism won the elections in March 1973, opening the period known as third Peronism. Internal sectors of the movement were confronted politically and through acts of violence: after the so-called Ezeiza massacre, Perón gave wide support to the “orthodox” sectors of his party, some of which in turn created the paramilitary command known as the Triple A, destined to persecute and assassinate militants qualified “of left”, Peronist and nonperonist. A month and a half after assuming, President Cámpora resigned and new elections were called without proscriptions. Perón was presented with his wife as candidates for President and Vice President respectively in September 1973 and achieved a broad triumph, and would take over the government in October of that year. But he died in mid-1974, leaving the Presidency in the hands of the vice president, who was overthrown without having finished his term. Peronism continued to exist and has achieved several electoral triumphs.

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