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Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (Annonay, August 26, 1740-Balaruc-les-Bains, June 26, 1810) and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier (Annonay, January 6, 1745-Serrières, August 2, 1799) were two French brothers known to be considered the inventors of the hot air balloon.
Jacques Etienne Montgolfier’s Biography
They were children of a paper manufacturer and while playing one day with paper bags inverted over the fire, they discovered that the bags went up to the ceiling. This led them to experiment with larger bags and lighter materials. In 1782 they made tests under cover with silk and linen. On December 14, 1782 they got an outdoor launch of a silk bag of 18 & nbsp; m³, which reached an altitude of 250 & nbsp; m.
On June 4, 1783 they held their first public demonstration; They brought up a spherical bag of linen lined with paper, 11 meters in diameter, 800 meters and a weight of about 226 kilograms filled with hot air. His flight traveled 2 km, lasted 10 minutes and reached an estimated altitude between 1600 and 2000 meters.
The following tests sent the first living beings (a sheep, a duck and a rooster) in a basket hooked to the balloon, to investigate the effects of air at height. This was done in Versailles before Louis XVI of France, in order to give his permission for a next flight test with humans. An ascent was made around October 15 at an altitude of 26 & nbsp; m.
On November 21, 1783, Pilâtre de Rozier and the Marquis d’Arlandes made the first flight manned by humans. They flew for 25 minutes at a height of about 100 meters over Paris, achieving a distance of nine kilometers.
These balloons were called montgolfière or “mongolfiera”.
From there, different flights took place, including one through the channel of La Mancha on January 7, 1785 with Jean Pierre Blanchard and John Jeffries on board.
Soon the hot air balloons were replaced by hydrogen balloons, and they did not return until the 1960s, when a company, Raven Industries, improved the design security of the classic Montgolfier balloon, using nylon for the balloon and propane as fuel by the burner.
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