Habib Bourguiba

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Habib Bourguiba
The Supreme Combatant
President
Habib Bourguiba
الحبيب بورقيبة
1st President of Tunisia
In office
25 July 1957 – 7 November 1987
Interim: 25 July 1957 – 8 November 1959
Prime Minister Bahi Ladgham
Hédi Nouira
Mohammed Mzali
Rachid Sfar
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
Preceded by Office created
(Muhammad VIII as King of Tunisia)
Succeeded by Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
2nd Prime minister of the Kingdom of Tunisia
20th Head of government
In office
11 April 1956 – 25 July 1957
Monarch King Muhammad VIII
Preceded by Tahar Ben Ammar
Succeeded by Office abolished
1st Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
15 April 1956 – 29 July 1957
Monarch King Muhammad VIII
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Sadok Mokaddem
1st Minister of Defense
In office
15 April 1956 – 29 July 1957
Monarch King Muhammad VIII
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Bahi Ladgham
1st Speaker of the National Constituent Assembly
In office
9 April 1956 – 15 April 1956
Monarch King Muhammad VIII
Preceded by First officeholder
Succeeded by Jallouli Fares
Personal details
Birthday/Birthplace Habib Ibn Ali Bourguiba
(1903-08-03)3 August 1903
Monastir, Regency of Tunisia
Deceased 6 April 2000(2000-04-06)
Monastir, Tunisia
Resting place Bourguiba mausoleum
Monastir, Tunisia
Citizenship Tunisian
Political party Socialist Destourian Party (1964–87)
Other political
affiliations
Neo Destour (1934–64)
Destourian Movement (1930–34)
Wife/Husband
  • Mathilde Lorrain (m. 1927; divorce 1961)
  • Wassila Ben Ammar (m. 1962; divorce 1986)
Kid(s) Jean Habib Bourguiba
Hajer Bourguiba (adoptive)
Mother Fattouma Khefacha
Father Ali Bourguiba
Family M’hamed Bourguiba (brother)
Mahmoud Bourguiba (brother)
Alma mater University of Paris
Profession(s) Political activist
Profession Lawyer
Signature
Official Website www.bourguiba.com

Habib Bourguiba Short Bio

Habib Bourguiba (in Arabic, حبيب بورقيبة Ḥabīb Būrqība , also known by the French transliteration Habib Bourguiba ) (Monastir, August 3 from 1903 – April 6, 2000) was a Tunisian politician and nationalist leader. He was the second Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Tunisia before ending the Monarchy and proclaiming the Republic of Tunisia on July 25, 1957, thus becoming its first president. Prior to this, he played an important role in securing French independence (March 20, 1956), thus ending the 75-year protectorate.

Habib Bourguiba was born in Monastir (Tunisia), being the youngest son of 8 brothers, in a family of middle-class landowners. After emphasizing in his studies, in 1907 he moved to Tunisia to continue his education at the Sadiki College and then at the Carnot Lyceum, before obtaining his French baccalaureate in 1924. In 1927, he graduated as a lawyer from the University of Paris and after his return to Tunisia, Bourguiba begins to be interested in the independence nationalism, integrating, in the decade of 1930, in the Tunisian nationalist party of which it got to be the maximum leader. & nbsp;

With aspirations towards a modern and reformist policy – closer to socialism, more decentralized, and disconnected from the elites of the city of Tunisia – which until then controlled the movement -, on March 2, 1934, at 31 years old, founds a new party: the Neo-Destour, leading the Tunisian movement for independence. & nbsp;

For his activism for independence, Bourguiba began to attract the attention of the authorities of the French protectorate, who arrested him and forced him into exile on several occasions. During the outbreak of World War II, Bourguiba (who at the time was in detention) was transferred to different French prisons.

After being released in 1942 by the Third Reich, he decided to internationalize the Tunisian case and seek the support of the Arab League in Cairo, where he lived from 1945 to 1949. His attempts were in vain, since the Arab countries were more worried about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

After his return to Tunisia, Bourguiba began to negotiate with France the conditions of independence. However, the talks proved to be a total failure and Bourguiba decides to present the case to the United Nations. & Nbsp;

After achieving the agitation of the Tunisian population and the beginning of the armed struggle against France, in 1952, he is imprisoned again, for two years in the Galita Islands, until he is released and appointed to negotiate the terms of the independence with the French prime minister, Pierre-Mendès France. After long discussions, Bourguiba obtains internal autonomy agreements for Tunisia and triumphantly returns to the Tunisian capital on June 1, 1955. However, the joy was short-lived, as the agreement obtained does not please Salah Ben Youssef or his supporters, who demanded the total independence of the Maghreb. & nbsp;

This disagreement begins a civil war between the supporters of Bourguiba, who advocated a gradual and modernizing policy, and the conservative nationalist supporters of Ben Youssef. The confrontation ends with the Sfax Congress of 1955 supporting Bourguiba, who would obtain independence from France on March 20, 1956.

After the independence of the country, Bourguiba was appointed Prime Minister by King Muhammad VIII al-Amin and acted as de facto ruler until he annulled the bey’s powers and proclaimed the Republic on July 25, 1957. Subsequently, he was appointed interim president of Tunisia until the constitution is promulgated and Bourguiba is elected permanent president.

His government focused the westernization of the country within the model of Arab socialism, including improvements in the educational system, the fight against gender inequality, the development of the economy and the maintenance of a neutral foreign policy, which became an exception among Arab leaders. Its great reform was the Tunisian Civil Code. Bourguiba established a presidential system that soon became a one-party state that lasted twenty years and was dominated by his party, the Desturiano Socialist Party. In 1975, the Tunisian parliament proclaimed him president for life of the Republic. & Nbsp;

The end of his thirty-year government was marked by a decline in his health, a “war of succession” and the rise of clientelism and Islamism in politics. His term ended with his dismissal by the then prime minister, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, on November 7, 1987. The deposed president was kept under house arrest and removed from politics, in a residence in Monastir, where he remained until his death on April 6, 2000.

More Facts about Habib Bourguiba

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