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|Birthday/Birthplace||Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi
(1874-04-25)25 April 1874
Palazzo Marescalchi, Bologna, Italy
|Deceased||20 July 1937(1937-07-20)
|College(s)||University of Bologna|
|Academic advisors||Augusto Righi|
Guillermo Marconi (in Italian, Guglielmo Marconi , Bologna, April 25, 1874-Rome, July 20, 1937) was an electronic engineer, entrepreneur and inventor Italian, known as one of the most prominent promoters of long-distance radio transmission, for the establishment of Marconi’s law, as well as for the development of a wireless telegraphy system (TSH) or radiotelegraphy.
He is sometimes credited as the inventor of the radio, and in 1909 he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Carl Ferdinand Braun in recognition of his contributions in the development of wireless telegraphy, however in 1943 the Court Supreme Court of the United States he withdrew the patent and recognized Tesla as the sole inventor of the radio.
He was also one of the most recognized inventors and, in addition to the Nobel Prize, he received the Franklin Medal, he was president of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei and King Víctor Manuel III of Italy named him Marquis, with what he happened to receive the I treat “Illustrious Lord.” In addition, he is included in the Hall of Fame of the Telecommunications and Broadcasting Museum of Chicago, and in his honor the National Broadcasting Association of the United States annually awards the NAB Marconi Radio Awards.
The second son of Giuseppe Marconi, Italian landowner, and his Irish-born wife Annie Jameson, studied at the University of Bologna. It was there that he carried out the first experiments on the use of electromagnetic waves for telegraphic communication. In 1896 the results of these experiments were applied in Great Britain, between Penarth and Weston, and in 1898 in the Italian naval arsenal of La Spezia. At the request of the government of France, in 1899 he made a practical demonstration of his discoveries, and established wireless communications through the English Channel, between Dover and Wimereux.
Patented the radio, although only in one country and using for its realization seventeen patents [citation required] of Nikola Tesla, dated July 2, 1897 in the United Kingdom. In later years such paternity was disputed by several people. In fact, other countries, such as France or Russia refused to recognize the patent for this invention, referring to the publications of Alexander Popov previously published.
Attracted by the idea of transmitting radio waves across the Atlantic, he went to Saint John’s (Newfoundland), where, on December 12, 1901, he received the letter “S” in Morse Code, transmitted on his behalf from Poldhu ( Cornwall) by one of its helpers, through 3360 km of ocean. However, the first complete transatlantic communication was not made until 1907. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden had already transmitted the human voice with radio waves on December 23, 1900.
In 1903 he established the WCC station in the United States, to transmit messages from east to west, at which inauguration messages were exchanged by President Theodore Roosevelt and King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. In 1904 he reached an agreement with the British Post Office for the commercial transmission of radio messages. That same year he launched the first oceanic newspaper on board the ships of the Cunard line, which received the news by radio.
His name became world famous as a result of the radio’s role in saving hundreds of lives during the disasters of the Republic (1909) and the Titanic (1912).
The value of radio in war was first demonstrated during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911. With the entry of Italy into World War I in 1915, he was appointed responsible for wireless communications for all armed forces , and visited the United States in 1917 as a member of the Italian delegation.
After the war he spent several years working on his yacht, Elettra, prepared as a laboratory, in experiments relating to short wave conduction and testing the directed wireless transmission.
He obtained, in 1909, the Nobel Prize in Physics, which he shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun. He was appointed life member of the Senate of the Kingdom of Italy in 1918 and in 1929 he received the title of Marquis. It is believed that Nikola Tesla rejected the Nobel Prize because he said precisely that Marconi had taken patents from him to make his invention, and that until he withdrew the award to Marconi he would not accept it. History that is rejected by the Nobel Foundation, since there is no record of letters showing this fact.
The Vatican Radio was founded by Guillermo Marconi and inaugurated by Pío XI (with the radio message Qui arcano Dei) on February 12, 1931.
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