Gregor Mendel

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Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
Birthday/Birthplace Johann Mendel
(1822-07-20)20 July 1822
Heinzendorf bei Odrau, Silesia, Austrian Empire (now Hynčice, Czech Republic)
Deceased 6 January 1884(1884-01-06)
Brünn, Austria-Hungary (now Brno, Czech Republic)
Citizenship Austrian
College(s) University of Olomouc
University of Vienna
Credit for Creating the science of genetics
Scientific career
Fields Genetics
Institutions St Thomas’s Abbey

Gregor Johann Mendel (Heinzendorf, Austrian Empire, present-day Hynčice, Nový Jičín district, Czech Republic, July 20, 1822 -Brno, Austro-Hungarian Empire, January 6, 1884) was a monk Augustinian Catholic and naturalist who formulated, through the work he carried out with different varieties of pea or pea (Pisum sativum), the so-called laws of Mendel that gave rise to genetic inheritance. The first works in genetics were made by Mendel. Initially made crossings of seeds, which were particularized by leaving different styles and some of the same form. In its results, it found characters, which, depending on whether the allele is dominant or recessive, can be expressed in different ways. The dominant alleles are characterized by determining the effect of a gene and the recessive because they have no genetic effect (say, expression) on a heterozygous phenotype.

His work was not valued when he published it in 1865. Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, Erich von Tschermak and William Bateson, who coined the terms “genetics” (a term he used to request the first institute for the study of this science ) and “allele” (extending Mendel’s laws to Zoology), they rediscovered Mendel’s laws separately in 1900.

Gregor Mendel’s Biography

Coat of arms of Gregor Mendel as abbot of St. Thomas of Brno.

Gregor Mendel was born on July 20, 1822 in a town called Heinzendorf (today Hynčice, in the north of Moravia, Czech Republic) then Austrian province, and was baptized with the name of Johann Mendel. He took the name of Father Gregorio when he entered as an Augustinian friar on October 9, 1843, in the convent of Augustinians of Brno (known at the time as Brünn) and home to enlightened clerics. He was ordained a priest on August 6, 1847. In 1849 he made an examination with the intention of entering as a teacher at a secondary school in Znojmo, but suspended. In 1851 he entered the University of Vienna where he studied history, botany, physics, chemistry and mathematics. There he would begin various analyzes on the bees’ heritage.

Mendel was the holder of the prelature of the Imperial and Royal Austrian Order of the Emperor Franz Josef I, director emeritus of the Mortgage Bank of Moravia, founder of the Austrian Meteorological Association, member of the Royal and Imperial Moravian Society and Silesia for the Improvement of Agriculture, Natural Sciences, Country Knowledge and gardener (he learned from his father how to make grafts and cultivate fruit trees).

Mendel presented his work at the meetings of the Natural History Society of Brünn (Brno) on February 8 and March 8, 1865, and subsequently published them as Experiments on Hybridization of Plants (Versuche über Plflanzenhybriden) in 1866 in the minutes of the Society. Their results were completely ignored, and it took more than thirty years for them to be recognized and understood, and interestingly, Charles Darwin himself did not know about Mendel’s work, according to what Jacob Bronowski says in his famous series / book The Ascent of man.

In characterizing the phenotypic characteristics (external appearance) of the peas, he called them “characters”. He used the name “element” to refer to separate hereditary entities. Its merit lies in realizing that in their experiments (varieties of peas) always occurred in variants with simple numerical proportions.

The “elements” and “characters” have subsequently received many names, but today they are universally known by the term genes, which was suggested in 1909 by the Danish biologist Wilhelm Ludwig Johannsen. And, to be more exact, different versions of a gene responsible for a particular phenotype are called alleles. The peas whose seeds are green and yellow correspond to different alleles of the gene responsible for the color of the seeds.

Mendel died on January 6, 1884 in Brünn, because of chronic nephritis.

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