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Engelbert Dollfuss or Dollfuß (Texing, October 4, 1892-Vienna, July 25, 1934) was an Austrian politician of Christian Socialist ideology, an expert in agrarian issues , Minister of Agriculture in several governments of the early 1930s and Chancellor between 1932 and 1934. He dissolved the democratic Parliament and ruled by decree. He was killed by members of the Austrian Nazi party.
He was born as the illegitimate son of a day laborer in 1892. Raised in a traditional Catholic catholic environment, he later received secondary education in a religious center that reinforced his deep Catholic beliefs, and studied at the University of Vienna, where he joined A Catholic organization, he fought in the First World War, on the Italian front, and received several decorations.In the postwar period, he completed university studies and was greatly influenced by the conservative thinking of Othmar Spann.He later spent a year in Germany , studying the operation of agricultural cooperatives; he applied this knowledge after 1922, when he worked in the agrarian chamber of Lower Austria, and later he directed the state railway company, his first national office.
Social Christian, had few links with the party: more than a traditional politician Dollfuss was a distinguished expert in agrarian issues, very industrious and with an open character that facilitated his dealings with politicians of other formations.His lack of previous experience in national politics it was considered an advantage: it could allow him to forge an alliance of parties to sustain the Government.
He assumed the presidency of the Government in May 1932, at the head of an unstable coalition of Christian, agrarian and fascist Heimwehr, who barely had a seat of advantage against the opposition in Parliament. the more moderate leaders willing to agree with the socialist opposition, ended up being the politician who ended the democratic parliamentary system that emerged during the postwar period.In March 1933, he dissolved the lower house and began to rule by decree. even among specialists, he presided over an unstable league of fascists, authoritarian elements, and other democratic ones, and his continual attempts to reach an agreement with the National Socialists, a goal in which he competed with his partners in the government of the Heimwehr, were ultimately unsuccessful.
He had to face the worst moment of the Great Depression in Austria and managed to improve the economic situation a lot.
In May 1934, he promulgated a new Constitution that marked the official beginning of an authoritarian regime known as “Austrofascism.” He died assassinated on July 25, 1934, during the failed attempt of a National Socialist coup; He was succeeded at the head of the Government by his Minister of Justice, Kurt von Schuschnigg.
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