Andrei Sakharov

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Andrei Sakharov

Andréi Dmítrievich Sakharov (in Russian, Андрей Дмитриевич Сахаров, Moscow, May 21, 1921 – ibid, December 14, 1989) was an eminent Soviet nuclear physicist, socialist and activist in favor of human rights and freedoms. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975.

Andrei_Sakharov’s Biography

Sakharov was born in Moscow in 1921, the son of Dmitri Ivanovich Sakharov, a physics teacher and amateur pianist. His grandfather had been an eminent lawyer in Czarist Russia with a humanist conscience particularly oriented towards social justice and the abolition of capital punishment. Sakharov’s mother was Ekaterina Alekséyevna Sájarova, of Greek descent. The humanism and social conscience of his family had a decisive influence on his personality, and although his great-grandfather had been an Orthodox priest and was baptized, his father’s atheism prevented the influence of religious ideas in his formation or in his life. Despite this, he believed that the universe and human life are governed by a superior driving force that can not be scientifically embraced.

Sakharov entered the Moscow State University in 1938. Due to the 1941 evacuation due to the Second World War, he graduated in Ashgabat, now Turkmenistan. He is then engaged in laboratory research in Ulyanovsk. During this period, she married in 1943 with Klavdia Alekséyevna Víjireva, with whom she has two daughters and a son before she died in 1969. She returned to Moscow in 1945 to study in the Department of Theoretical Physics of the Lébedev Physics Institute (FIAN ) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. There she became a doctor in 1947.

At the end of the Second World War, Sakharov investigates cosmic rays. In mid-1948 he participated in the Soviet project to build the Atomic Bomb, under the direction of Igor Kurchátov. The first Soviet atomic device is tested on August 29, 1949. After moving to the Sarov (Nizhny Novgorog Province) in 1950, Sakharov played a leading role in the development of the Hydrogen Bomb or H-Bomb. The first fusion device Soviet enters into tests on August 12, 1953, using the so-called Sloika design. In 1953 he was elected full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and was awarded the first of his three medals of Hero of Socialist Labor (Герой Социалистического Труда). Sakharov continues his work in Sarov, his essential activity being to develop the first megaton-scale Soviet hydrogen bomb, using a design that in Russia is known as “Third Idea of ​​Sakharov”, and in the United States is known as Teller-Ulam design. It was rehearsed under the name RDS-37 in 1955. A larger variant of the Sakharov design was the October 1961 Zar Bomb, 50 megatons in power, and the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated.

In 1950 he also proposes an idea for a controlled fusion nuclear reactor, the tokamak, which is still the basic design for most current developments. Sakharov, together with Igor Tamm, proposed to confine an ionized plasma at extremely high temperature by means of toroidal magnetic fields to control thermonuclear fusion.

In 1951 he invented the first magnetoimplosive generator, compressing magnetic fields by means of explosives. Call this device the MK generator (magneto-accumulators). The radial MK-1 produces a pulsed magnetic field of 25 megagauss (2500 teslas). The helical MK-2 generates up to 100 million amps in 1953. Sakharov then rehearses the “plasma cannon” powered by MK generators, in which a small aluminum ring was vaporized by the giant induced currents, producing a toroidal plasmoid stable and self-contained that was driven at 100 km / s. Sakharov further suggests replacing the coil of the MK generator with a large superconducting solenoid to magnetically compress and focus underground nuclear explosions to produce an effect similar to anti-armor missiles and shaped charge effect, in which the energy of the Explosion is guided and focused on the objective. According to their theories and calculations, 1023 protons per second could be focused on a surface of 1 mm² and cause the collision of two beams of this type, but it is not known of any experiment that has demonstrated this idea.

After 1965, Sakharov returned to basic research and began working in the fields of particle physics and cosmology.
He focuses especially on the explanation of the asymmetry of Barions of the universe, being the first scientist to introduce two universes (or “layers”) joined together by the Big Bang. Sakharov then achieves a complete CPT symmetry, since the second layer is enantiomorphic (symmetry P), has an opposite time arrow (symmetry T) and is constituted mainly by antimatter (symmetry C) due to an opposite CP violation. In its model, the two universes do not interact, except through the local accumulation of matter, whose density and pressure were high enough to connect the two layers by a bridge without space-time between them, but by geodetic continuity beyond the limit radius for mass exchange. Sakharov calls such singularities a collapse and an anticopal, which are an alternative to the black hole and white hole pair of the wormhole theory. Sakharov also proposes the idea of ​​induced gravity as an alternative theory to quantum gravity.

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